Flies can be a nuisance when buzzing around your premise, particularly if in large numbers. However, some species of fly also pose health risks to humans. House flies transmit a wide range of diseases including salmonella, dysentery, tuberculosis, cholera and parasitic worms. In India, there is a high risk of disease transmission through flies. During emergency situations, when hygiene conditions are less than optimal, flies often are the main reason for cholera and dysentery epidemics. But even under normal conditions, children and elderly are at a greater risk of conducting more common diseases such as salmonella food poisoning from fly contaminated food.
Flies spread diseases because of their breeding and feeding habits. Bacteria from where the fly usually feed on would get stuck on their mouthparts and footpads eventually spreading onto places they land on. Imagine if it’s exposed food that you are about to eat.
However, there are simple ways you can identify signs of a fly infestation and take simple precautions because it has the potential to turn into a serious infestation if left uncontrolled.
The main types of flies are
The house fly passes through four stages in its life cycle: egg, larva, pupa and adult. The female of the species can be seen depositing their eggs on suitable breeding materials. Often, the females can be seen in clusters of up to 50 individuals. The female house fly lays individual eggs that pile up in masses of 75 to 150 eggs; in her lifetime, a single female house fly may lay up to 900 eggs. The female fly begins laying her eggs anywhere from 4 to 12 days from emerging from her pupae. She may lay 5 or 6 batches at intervals of several days between each.
Your inspection should begin outside the home or building; although house flies are known to breed in indoor dirty trash cans, they are usually found feeding and breeding in fresh manure, rotting fruits and vegetables, damp garbage and damp, decaying organic materials that are located outside of the structure. After locating all possible breeding sites, look for areas where house flies enter a structure. Cracks around windows, doors and vents are the usual culprits.
Fruit flies develop by complete metamorphosis. The eggs (which are difficult to see with the naked eye) are deposited near the surface of fermenting fruit or organic matter. A pair of filaments that are attached to the eggs protrude above the surface of the liquid. The female fruit fly will lay about 500 eggs. The larvae emerge about 30 hours after the eggs have been laid and feed near the surface of the fermenting material. The larvae feed for five to six days then crawl to drier areas of the food source or even out of the food source to pupate. The larva transforms into the pupa in the last larval skin, or puparium, which bears a conspicuous pair of filaments on the anterior end. The adult fruit fly emerges several days later. The newly emerged fruit flies are attracted to light and become sexually active in about two days. The adults mate more than once. Under ideal conditions, the life cycle from egg to adult can be completed in as little as eight days. The sudden appearance of large populations is not uncommon inside buildings.
When searching for fruit fly breeding sources, remember that the larva can only survive in decaying organic matter that is moist. The first obvious place to check is where any fruits or vegetables or stored outside of refrigerators or coolers. Other areas to inspect would be recycling bins, seldom used (or cleaned) garbage cans, underneath and behind large appliances. Do not overlook drains where small flies are often found breeding in the super thin layer or film of debris that naturally accumulates in pipes, traps and drains.
When searching for Phorid fly breeding sources, remember that the larva can only survive in decaying organic matter that is moist. The first obvious place to check is where any fruits or vegetables or stored outside of refrigerators or coolers. Other areas to inspect would be recycling bins, seldom used (or cleaned) garbage cans, underneath and behind large appliances. Do not overlook drains where small flies are often found breeding in the super thin layer or film of debris that naturally accumulates in pipes, traps and drains.
Phorid flies develop by egg, larva, pupa and adult. The female will lay about 20 eggs at a time and will lay about 40 eggs in a 12 hour period. Each adult female phorid will lay approximately 500 eggs. The tiny eggs are deposited on or near the surface of decaying organic matter. Larvae emerge in 24 hours and feed for 8 to 16 days. The Phorid fly larvae then crawl to a drier spot to pupate. The life cycle from egg to adult can be completed in as little as 14 days (under ideal conditions) but may take as long as 37 days to complete their cycle.
The phorids, also known as humpbacked flies, are small to minute flies that resemble fruit flies in appearance. The Phorid fly lacks the red eye color that is the classic trademark of the fruit fly. Phorid flies are in the small category of flies, measuring up to 1/8 inch in length, including the wings. The most prominent feature of this fly is the humpbacked shape of its thorax. The severe arch of the thorax gives it the common nickname of humpbacked fly. The most easily recognized feature (seen with the naked eye) is the habit of the adult Phorid fly running rapidly across surfaces instead of immediately flying when disturbed. Most flies immediately take flight.
Phorid flies are also know as coffin flies, when found in mortuaries and mausoleums.